The majority of genes in the Arabidopsis genome are members of gene families , so that redundant gene functions typically need to be assessed by producing double or higher-order mutants from T-DNA lines. Ideally, high-throughput screens shouldn’t harm the vegetation investigated in order that they can be used directly for the following steps in ahead genetics. Besides visible screens for altered development or coloration phenotypes, other non-invasive screening procedures have been employed. For occasion, systematic measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence have been used to find out the effectivity of photosynthetic electron move. To this finish, picture analysis and a semi-automated pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer gadget have been developed.

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